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Compression Spring

Compression spring parameters

Physical parameters

  • d (wire diameter): This parameter describes the diameter of wire used as material for spring.
  • S (shaft): This parameter describes the maximum diameter of spring shaft in industrial applications. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).
  • Di (internal diameter): Internal diameter of a spring can be calculated by subtracting the doubled wire diameter from the external diameter of a spring. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).
  • De (external diameter): External diameter of a spring can be calculated by adding the doubled wire diameter to the internal diameter of a spring. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).
  • H (hole): This is the minimum diameter of the hole in which spring can work. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).
  • P (pitch): Average distance between two subsequent active coils of a spring. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).
  • Lc (block length): Maximal length of a spring after total blocking. This parameter is shown in the picture on right. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)15%(indicative).
  • Ln (allowable length): The maximum permitted length of a spring after loading. If deflection is higher it may cause plastic deformation (the non-reversible change of shape in response to an applied force). For many springs danger of deformation do not exists. In this case Ln = Lc + Sa, where Sa is the sum of minimum permissible spaces between active coils.
  • L0 (free length): Free length of compression springs is measured in its uncompressed state after previous one time blocking. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).
  • Nr of coils: This is a total number of coils in a spring - in the picture above it is equal to six. To calculate number of active coils substract two terminating coils from total number of coils.
  • R (spring rate): This parameter determines spring's resistance, while it is working. It is measured in 1 DaN/mm = 10 N/mm. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)15%(indicative).
  • L1 & F1 (length at force F): Force F1 at length L1 can be calculated from equation : F1 = (L0-L1) * R. Equation derrived from previous for calculating L1 : L1 = L0 - F1/R.
  • Grinding: Defines whether or not the ends of a spring are ground.
  • Reference Number: All springs are identified by a unique reference: type . (De * 10) . (d * 100) . (L0 * 10) . Material ; for compression springs, the type is a letter "C", materials are identified by following letters described below: "A" , "I", "N" , and "S". Example: C.063.090.0100.A is a compression spring with an external diameter of 6.3 mm and a free length of 10mm, produced from 0.9mm music wire.


  • A (Music Wire): Steel that conforms to the EN 10270-1 class SH standard.
  • I (Inox steel): Inox 18/8 mark Z10 CN 18.09.
  • N (Zn coated wire): Zinc coated wire for springs
  • S (Cr-Si Steel): Cr-Si Steel. Springs created from this material have better endurance and spring rate. These parts will be available from 2005-03-01


  • Ends: All compression springs have flat ends.
  • Spring rate: Tolerance for spring rate is (+-)15%(indicative).

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Spring 3
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Compress 1
Compress 1