Parameters for torsion springs

Physical parameters

**d (wire diameter):**This parameter describes the diameter of wire used as material for spring.**Dd (Shaft):**This parameter describes maximal diameter of spring shaft in industrial applications.Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).**Di (internal diameter):**Internal diameter of a spring. It can be calculated by subtracting the wire diameter multiplied by 2 from the external diameter of a spring. Internal diameter in torsion springs decreases while the spring is working even up to shaft diameter. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).**De (external diameter):**External diameter of a spring. It can be calculated by adding the wire diameter multiplied by 2 to the internal diameter of a spring. External diameter in torsion springs decrease while the spring is working. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2% with tolerance (+-) 0.1 mm**L0 (Free Length):**WARNING: Free Length decrease while spring is working. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).**Ls (Leg Length):**It is the distance from the center axis of the coil body to the end of the torsion springs' leg. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).**An (Maximum angle):**Maximum acceptable rotation angle for the spring in degrees. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)15 degrees (indicative).**Fn (Maximum force):**Maximum acceptable force that can operate at the end of torsion springs' leg. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)15%(indicative).**Mn (Maximum torque):**Maximum acceptable torque (Newton * mm). Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)15%(indicative).**R (Spring rate):**This parameter determines spring's resistance, while it is working. It is measured in. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)15%(indicative).*Newton * mm / degree***A1 & F1 & M1: (angle at torque or force)**The following equation calculates the angle as a function of the torque:. In order to calculate the torque from the force, we use this equation:*A1 = M1/R**M = F*Ls***Leg position**There are 4 types of torsion springs' leg positions: 0, 90 ,180 or 270 degrees (see picture above).**Helix direction:**A right-hand-wound spring loads in a counter-clockwise direction. A left-hand-wound spring loads in a clockwise direction. Both types are available in all sizes.**Reference Number:**All springs are identified by a unique reference:. For right-hand-wound springs, the type is a letter "**type . (De * 10) . (d * 100) . (N * 100)**". For left-hand-wound springs, the type is a letter "*D*". "*G*" stands for the number of coils. Example:*N*is a right-hand-wound torsion spring with an external diameter of 2.8mm produced from 0.9mm stainless steel wire and having 3.5 coils.*D.028.020.0350*

Materials

**I (Inox steel):**Inox 18/8 mark Z10 CN 18.09.

Tolerances

**Leg position:**(+-)15 degrees**Leg Length:**(+-)3 %

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